9. Climate analysis maps (map-XIII, pages 1 to 12)Climatopes
Climatopes are areas with similar microclimatic characteristics. They differ especially in the daily temperature curve, the vertical roughness (wind field disturbances), the topographic position and exposure and above all in the type of actual land use. Another criterion for particular climatopes is the quantity of emissions.
As microclimatic characteristics in built-up areas are primarily determined by the type of actual land use and especially by the type of development, climatopes are named after the dominant type of land use.
Water body climatope
Water body climatopes have a balancing thermal effect on their surroundings as a result of weakly marked daily and annual temperature curves. Air temperatures in summer are lower than in their surroundings at daytime and higher at nighttime. Water body climatopes are characterized by a high humidity and wind exposure.
This climatope is naturally related to large water bodies, while smaller water surfaces are mainly included for reasons of orientation. This indication is not to reduce their local climatic relevance however.
Open land climatope
Characteristics of the open land climatope are extreme daily and annual temperature and humidity curves as well as only small changes in the wind flow. The result is an intensive production of fresh and cold air during the night.
This is especially true for large meadows and agricultural areas as well as open land which is only sparsely forested.
The forest climatope is characterized by much attenuated daily and annual temperature and humidity curves. While relatively low temperatures and a high humidity are predominant around the trunks due to shadowing and evaporation during the day, relatively mild temperatures occur at night. What is more, the canopy of the trees act as a pollutant filter and this qualifies forest climatopes as regeneration zones for the air and people.
Green space climatope
Green spaces within towns or cities, like parks, have balancing effects on their developed and often overheated surroundings due to relatively extreme daily temperature and humidity curves and the resulting production of cold and fresh air. Larger green spaces act as ventilation openings. Densely forested green spaces within towns or cities provide shadowing during the day and therefore represent cool compensation areas with a high humidity in contrast to the heated surroundings
Garden town climatope
The garden town climatope comprises built-up areas with open development, one to three storeys, and numerous green spaces. All climatic elements are slightly modified compared to the open land climatope with a considerable night cooling and an only mild slowing down of regional winds.
The suburban climatope is determined by denser single buildings, terraced houses or perimeter development with green spaces and a maximum of three storeys or by detached buildings with green spaces and a maximum of five storeys. The night cooling is strongly limited and depends basically on the surroundings. Local winds and cold-air flows are constrained and regional winds massively slowed down.
Multistorey closed development with only few green spaces and detached tower blocks characterize a town climatope. The heating during the day is very strong and the cooling at night very weak. The result is a heat island effect with a relatively low humidity compared with the surroundings. Dense and high development significantly influences regional and supraregional wind systems and this is why the air exchange is limited and the ambient air concentration of pollutants is generally high. Urban canyons have high pollutant concentrations and noise exposure as well as gusty wind turbulences.
Town center climatope
Dense and high built-up areas in the inner city with only few green spaces lead to a strong heating during the day and to the clear formation of a heat island during the night with a low average humidity. Massive development in combination with a marked heat island considerably influence regional and supraregional winds. The ambient air concentration of pollutants is generally high. Urban canyons have gusty wind turbulences as well as high pollutant concentrations and noise exposure.
The business climatope corresponds basically to the climatope of dense development, i.e. heat island effect, low humidity, significant wind field disturbances. Other characteristics are extensive access roads and parking spaces as well increased emissions. The thermal night pictures indicate an intense cooling in parts of hall roofs (especially tin roofs), while urban canyons and parking spaces lined by buildings remain strongly heated.
The industry climatope is similar to the town center and town climatope, but it has large circulation areas and much higher emissions (with plants requiring permission). As the heating during the day is strong, a clear heat island is formed during the night due to the high percentage of sealed areas, even if many hall roofs cool down significantly. The air masses near the ground are heated, dry and have a high concentration of pollutants. Massive buildings and the warming near the ground considerably modify the wind field.
The railway climatope is characterized by an intensive warming at daytime and a rapid cooling at night. But surface temperature are higher than in open land. The tracks are exposed to the wind due to only few roofing constructions and they often serve as ventilation lanes or air exchange areas in built-up areas. They are considered as a climatope as from a width of about 50 m, i.e. only in the case of multi-track railyards.
|© City of Stuttgart, Office for Environmental Protection, Section of Urban Climatology